文學的「測不準原理」:以袁哲生〈送行〉、江邊〈流浪者之歌〉為例

 

 

  文學範圍內,文體的分類向來似乎界線分明;文學概論裡不乏「小說的要素」、「散文的要素」等標示,但檢視文學發展的現象卻發現其變異性從不受規範的限制,總是有變體在挑戰臨界的文體格式。當以文類標準來看似乎面貌雷同的文學作品出現時,究竟我們該如何分辨與面對文本?

     即便許多理論當前,針對文本,文類的爭議性未曾因理論的成熟而稍歇。作品往往會因具備跨標準格式或未具標準格式而呈現夾雜於各類之間的模糊地帶,作為讀者,究竟該以何種標準或規約去檢視文本與內容?是否真有一套完整框架與方法,得以將眾文本合套並析解之?本文欲以袁哲生〈送行〉、江邊〈流浪者之歌〉為例,探究作品其中引人爭議的文類概念分歧之處,何以〈送行〉看似沒有固定主人公、清楚結局的作品、沒有人物對話的書寫,仿若穿著散文外衣可以置於小說之列?〈流浪者之歌〉打破散文格式切割敘述主題,包裹環繞著面目模糊的主題人物,一路以小說態勢上演,卻能以散文來定位?透過直面文本的分析探討及聚焦文類的概念,以釐清作品、文類間的模糊地帶,也明化文學的藝術獨特性。

 

關鍵詞:1.文類   2.小說   3.文學本體論   4.袁哲生〈送行〉  5.江邊〈流浪者之歌〉

 

Abstract

 

  In the field of literature, the classifications of literary forms seem to have clear and distinct demarcations. However, the evolution and development literature always involve new variants challenging the boundaries of established literary forms.  As such, theoretical debates involving "text" and "genre" never cease.

This article is to explore the common controversies and divergent concepts in literary theories using Departure by Ze-Sheng Yuan, and Song of the Vagabound by Bien Jian.  Specifically, how Departure would be considered a novel instead of prose despite not having a set protagonist, nor clear ending, nor any conversation among characters.  In contrast, Song of the Vagabound breaks the boundaries of prose by using narratives of vague theme characters, yet still considered a prose, not a novel.  This article will attempt to clarify the ambiguous boundaries between literature and literary genres via analytical discussion of the texts and concept of convergent literature, and in the process also illustrate the artistic uniqueness of literature.

 

 

KeyWords:1.Gener, fiction     2.Departure by Ze-Sheng Yuan  3.Song of the Vagabound by Bien Jian